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Philosophy 170, Logic and Critical Thinking.
Fullerton Community College.
Fall, 2008


Philosophy 100, Introduction to Philosophy.
Fullerton Community College.


Philosophy 170, Logic and Critical Thinking.
Session: 20649
Term: Spring, 2009
Date & Time: Tuesdays 1900-2150

Required Text:
Beyond Feelings, A Guide to Critical Thinking, Eighth Edition
(2008). By Vincent Ruggiero (McGraw Hill)
Reference Text (NOT student-required: Critical Thinking, 8th Edition (2007)
by Moore and Parker (McGraw-Hill)
Instructor: Dr. Michael J. Brady
E-Mail: ****@*****
Web: www.geocities.com/dartmoor_professor

Purpose and Requirements.
The aim of this course is to help students become better critical thinkers, using the kind of reasoning constantly required everyday. �This course focuses on an understanding of the relationship of language to logic which should lead to the ability to identify and evaluate various inductive and deductive arguments. The course is also concerned that students become aware of semantic confusions and of the nature and importance of definitions. The minimal competence expected of the student is the ability to distinguish fact from judgment, belief from knowledge and skills in inductive and deductive processes, including an understanding of the formal and informal fallacies. The evaluation of an extended argument may be required by the instructor and designed to satisfy the critical thinking requirement for those planning to transfer to the CSU/UC system. (CSU) (UC) (Degree credit)�

There will be three short tests, a midterm, and a final during the course of the semester. These exams will be over the material covered in class. In the interest of fairness, there will be no makeup exams unless prearranged. Do not miss an exam, without leaving a timely message, and then come to ask for an exception.

The class starts at 7:00pm. If roll has been called and a student's name has been called before the student enters the room, the student is late. Roll will also be called after any break that may be taken. A student must be present for knowledge to be acquired and demonstrated. Being tardy, or absent, may bring about a lack of understanding of the subject matter, making it very difficult to participate in subsequent classes and complete the required final and paper.

A history of absences and being tardy may also put the student's grade and enrollment in the class in jeopardy. It is the student's responsibility to notify the teacher concerning an absence. Besides being present in class, the student will also receive a grade for participation.

Adding/Dropping the class? It is the responsibility of the student to do the proper paperwork and submit it in a timely manner. The instructor does not believe that he should try to track down mature people to find out their intentions on the class.

Cell phones are to be placed on pulse/vibrate. Text messaging during class is not accepted, text messaging during an exam will place your exam in jeopardy.

All assignments are due prior to the start of class on the due date. Assignments that are written, or completed, during a class session will not be accepted.

All assignments, except the paper, may be hand written in neat, legible, writing. A grade will not be given if I cannot read the handwriting. Pages torn out of a spiral notebook are not accepted. Exercises of two or more papers must be stapled prior to being submitted.

The paper must be typed. The paper must follow the guidelines of the Modern Language Association (MLA) in regards to style and proper citations. The font required for both the final and the paper is Times New Roman at 12 points. The required spacing is 1.5. The text of the topical paper should extend beyond eight (8) full pages. A cover page and Works Cited page are required. Papers must be stapled when handed in.

The topic of the paper deals with The Master of Critical Thinking; Sherlock Holmes.

I read all papers and I will not accept papers in which there are word-for-word sections contained within another paper, unless proper citations are given for the word-for-word sections.

The unethical act of plagiarism will place a student�s paper, and grade, in jeopardy. Plagiarism may be defined as the use of the work of another without permission or without proper citation.

If there is an agreement that the student may e-mail the assignment it is the responsibility of the student to make sure the e-mail is virus free and that the assignment may be opened in MS Word.

Method of Evaluation:
The course grade will be determined by the following manner.
Tests 15% of the Grade
Midterm 20% of the Grade
Participation 20% of the Grade
Paper 20% of the Grade
Final Exam 25% of the Grade

Course Outline:
(01/13)
Introduction and general synopsis of the course. "What is Critical Thinking?"
Special Reading Assignmentfor next week:

Critical Thinking Why Is It So Hard to Teach?
(01/20)
Chapter 1. Who are you?
Chapter 2. What is Critical Thinking? Discussion on Reading: If Critical Thinking is hard to teach, why is it hard to learn?

(01/27)
Chapter 3. What is Truth?
Chapter 4. What does it mean to know?

(02/03)
Test #1.
Chapter 5. How Good are Your Opinions?
Chapter 6. What is Evidence?

(02/10)
Chapter 7. What is Argument?
Moore and Parker�s book will also be used.

(02/17)

Evidence and opinions
Chapter 8. The basic problem �Mine is Better."
Chapter 9. Errors of Perspective.

(02/24)
Chapter 10. Errors of Procedure.
Chapter 11. Errors of Expression.
For part of the midterm you will need to read the interview between Wolf Blitzer and Michael Moore concerning Moore�s documentary �SICKO�. The interview may be found at:

Blitzer/Moore

(03/03)
Chapter 12. Errors of Reaction.
Chapter 13. The Errors of Combination.

(03/10)
Test #2.
Chapter 14. Knowing Yourself.
Chapter 15. Being Observant.

(03/17)
Midterm
Chapter 16. Selecting an Issue.
Chapter 17. Conducting Inquiry

(03/24) Chapter 18.Forming a Judgment.
Chapter 19. Persuading Others.

(03/31) Fullerton Community College
Test #3.
From Moore and Parker. Chapter 8. Deductive Arguments I: Categorical Logic.

(04/07) Spring Break

(04/14) Fullerton Community College
Deductive Arguments, part two. Venn Method and the Rules method for proving Validity

(04/21)
More Venn Diagrams

(04/28)
Chapter 10. Inductive Arguments.
Chapter 11.Causal Arguments.

(05/05) Fullerton Community College
Chapter 12. Moral, Legal, and Aesthetic Reasoning

(05/12) Review of main ideas for paper and Final.
(05/19) FINAL EXAM
PAPERS DUE

Office Hours and Special Situations: I do not have an office on campus. The best time for a student to have a conference with me is before or after class. Or, the student may contact me by E-Mail. Please feel free to contact me concerning special situations that might bring about an absence. I also offer my help to anyone with learning disabilities. Philosophy, a difficult subject in itself, does not have to be made impossible by not asking for guidance or help.

The Master of Critical Thinking; Sherlock Holmes.

The Final Paper Requirements You are to do the following:

Select a Sherlock Holmes Story

Have the story approved by the instructor. First come-first served!

Give a synopsis of the story.

Point out at least four, or more, characters. (Holmes, Watson, the victim, the perpetrator, and others). Who among the characters has Credibility and Authority? Give detailed reasons for your decision. (There may be more than one person with both Credibility and Authority as one person might not have both Credibility and Authority.)

Point out at lease five of the Rhetorical Devices, Techniques, and Fallacies (Psychological). Those Rhetorical Devices, Techniques, and Fallacies (Psychological) are:

Euphemism and Dysphemisms, Stereotypes, Innuendo, Loaded Questions, Weaslers, Downplayers, Horse Laugh/Ridicule/Sarcasm, Hyperbole, Proof Surrogates, Argument from Outrage, Apple Polishing, Scare Tactics, Rationalizing, Subjectivism, Red Herring/Smokescreen

Name the Rhetorical Devices, Techniques, and Fallacies (Psychological) that you are going to use. Give a definition for the Rhetorical Devices, Techniques, and Fallacies (Psychological) and explain how and why it is used in society. Give the citation of its occurrence in the story (you may copy and paste) and explain how and why it is used in the story.

Define Deductive and Inductive reasoning and find an example of each within the story. Show how the examples fit the definitions of Deductive and Inductive reasoning.

Using either the Deductive or Inductive reasoning, create a three-point Categorical Syllogism that has Two Premises and One Conclusion. Determine the Validity of the syllogism by using the Venn Diagram Method and the Rules Method.

Define Causal reasoning and Ex Post Facto reasoning. Cite instances of their use as well as to what extent the reasoning was effective.

Define Moral, Legal, and Aesthetic Reasoning. Cite instances of their use as well as to how they were used. Some stories might contain an occurrence of Moral, Legal, and Aesthetic Reasoning while other stories might contain an occurrence of only one of the forms of reasoning.

Point out an Argument that is made, and lost due to, Emotions or Feelings. Point out an Argument that shows clear and concise thinking and convinces the reader, by the use of Premises, to accept the Conclusion. This argument will probably be made by Holmes and will show how he solved the case. Remember the argument of You have been to Afghanistan, I perceive.

The Final Paper Guidelines
Remember to follow these guidelines that are presented in the syllabus and on the web page:

The paper must be typed and must follow the guidelines of the Modern Language Association (MLA) in regards to style and proper citations. The font required is Times New Roman at 12 points and the required spacing is 1.5. The text of the paper should extend beyond eight (8) full pages. Papers must be stapled when handed in.

The unethical act of plagiarism will place a student�s paper, and grade, in jeopardy. Plagiarism may be defined as the use of the work of another without permission or without proper citation.

The majority of the Sherlock Holmes stories, by Arthur Conan Doyle, are in the Public Domain. Permission has been granted by the estate of Arthur Conan Doyle to use, for educational purposes only, the stories that have not been placed in the Public Domain.

Help will be given as to the proper way of making a citation from electronic sources.

"When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, However Improbable,
must be the truth"

You have been to Afghanistan, I perceive.

(Sherlock Holmes) "You appeared to be surprised when I told you, on our first meeting, that you had come from Afghanistan."

(Dr. Watson) "You were told, no doubt."

(Sherlock Holmes) "Nothing of the sort. I knew you came from Afghanistan. From long habit the train of thoughts ran so swiftly through my mind that I arrived at the conclusion without being conscious of intermediate steps. There were such steps, however. The train of reasoning ran, "Here is a gentleman of a medical type, but with the air of a military man. Clearly an army doctor, then. He has just come from the tropics, for his face is dark, and that is not the natural tint of his skin, for his wrists are fair. He has undergone hardship and sickness, as his haggard face says clearly. His left arm has been injured. He holds it in a stiff and unnatural manner. Where in the tropics could an English army doctor have seen much hardship and got his arm wounded? Clearly in Afghanistan." The whole train of thought did not occupy a second. I then remarked that you came from Afghanistan, and you were astonished."

An argument has been made. Premises were given to support the argument and to lead the listener (Dr. Watson) to accept the Conclusion. The Conclusion is nothing more that the statement of the Argument.

This is how the argument was posed:

Argument: Whether or not Doctor Watson has been to Afghanistan.
Premise: Here is a gentleman of a medical type.
Premise: He has the air of a military man.
Premise: He is an army doctor, then.
Premise: He has just come from the tropics.
Premise: His face is dark, and that is not the natural tint of his skin, for his wrists are fair.
Premise: He has undergone hardship and sickness, as his haggard face says clearly .
Premise: His left arm has been injured. He holds it in a stiff and unnatural manner.
Premise: He suffered such hardships and wound with the Military in the tropics.
Premise: England is at war in the tropics of Afghanistan(Implied).
Conclusion: Therefore, Dr. Watson has been to Afghanistan.
From: A Study in Scarlet, Chapter 2, The Science of Deduction. By Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.(Used for Educational Purposes only)

E-Mail Dr. Brady

Please remember to give your registered name and course number when e-mailing!



Philosophy 100, Introduction to Philosophy.
Spring Session, 2009 (Section 20563)
Thursday 4:00-6:50
Michael J. Brady, Psy.D.
****@*****

Suggested text:
Biffle, Christopher. LANDSCAPE OF WISDOM, Mayfield, (1999).

Purpose and Requirements:
This course will have three hours lecture with discussion per week. The course will cover many of the philosophers who were instrumental in developing Western Philosophy as we know it today. Various philosophical divisions, viewpoints, and methods will be covered with the student having a chance to show their understanding in different ways.

At various points of this course, and by the end of this course, students will be able to:
1. Identify & explain the standard divisions of philosophy.
2. Compare & contrast different, historically significant philosophical theories or attempts to answer standard philosophical questions.
3. Examine the most important questions of human experience which have been raised by every civilization, and be able to explain the practical significance of both the questions, and possible answers.
4. Recognize the historical impact of the important ideas of philosophers which influenced history and society, and which created the temporal context in which we live.
5. Evaluate ideas, philosophers, teachings, doctrines, which impact on all facets of human life.
6. Employ philosophy oneself, and explain how the philosophical method can have daily practical significance.

There will be three tests, a mid-term, and a final exam during the course of the semester. These tests will be over the material covered in class. In the interest of fairness, there will be no makeup exams unless prearranged. Do not miss an exercise/exam, without leaving a timely message, and then come back to ask for an extension.

The last requirement will be a paper. The topic of the paper will be given in class and success will be based upon the student meeting the requirements of the paper.

The class starts at 4:00pm (1600). If roll has been called and a student's name has been called before the student enters the room, the student is late. Roll will also be called after any break that may be taken. Being tardy, or absent, may bring about a lack of understanding of the subject matter, making it very difficult to participate in subsequent classes and complete the required final/paper. A history of absences from class may also put the student's grade and enrollment in the class in jeopardy. It is the student's responsibility to notify the teacher concerning an absence.

A student must be present for knowledge to be acquired and demonstrated. Being tardy, or absent, may bring about a lack of understanding of the subject matter as well as a possible failing grade or being dropped. It is the students� responsibility to notify the teacher concerning an absence. Besides being present in class, the student will also receive a grade for participation

Adding/Dropping the class? It is the responsibility of the student to do the proper paperwork and submit it in a timely manner. The instructor does not believe that he should try to track down mature people to find out their intentions on the class.

Cell phones are to be placed on pulse/vibrate. Text messaging during class is not accepted, text messaging during an exam will place your exam in jeopardy.

All assignments are due prior to the start of class on the due date. Assignments that are written, or completed, during a class session will not be accepted.

All assignments, except the final and the paper, may be hand written in neat, legible, writing. A grade will not be given if I cannot read the handwriting. Pages torn out of a spiral notebook are not accepted. Exercises of two or more papers must be stapled prior to being submitted.

The paper must be typed and must follow the guidelines of the Modern Language Association (MLA) in regards to style and proper citations. The font required for both the final and the paper is Times New Roman at 12 points. The required spacing is 1.5. The text of the topical paper should extend beyond eight (8) full pages. Papers must be stapled when handed in.

I read all papers and I will not accept papers in which there are word-for-word sections contained within another paper, unless proper citations are given for the word-for-word sections.

The unethical act of plagiarism will place a student�s paper and grade, in jeopardy. Plagiarism may be defined as the use of the work of another without permission or without proper citation.

If there is an agreement that the student may e-mail the assignment it is the responsibility of the student to make sure the e-mail is virus free and that the assignment may be opened in MS Word.

Method of Evaluation:
Grades will be determined using the following scale:
Tests (3) 5%
Mid-term 10%
Participation 15%
Final 35%
Paper 35%
90-100%=A 80-89%=B 70-79%=C 60-69%=D 0-59%=F

Course Outline:
(01/15)
Please read the e-mail for the expectations of today's meeting.

(01/22)
Introduction and expectations. A general synopsis of the course.
Chapter 1. Setting Forth. (Towards an understanding and appreciation of the pioneers of Philosophy)
Chapter 2. Life on Planet Unphilosophos.

(01/29)
The major Branches/Divisions of Philosophy.
Chapter 3. Thales and the beginning of philosophy.
Chapter 4. Heraclitus: Breaking the Code of Reality.
Chapter 5. Parmenides. What is the Mysterious X Stuff? End of the presocratics and the beginning of the Socratic way.
Chapter 6. Zeno and the Magical Illusion of Motion. End of the presocratics and the beginning of the Socratic way.

(02/05)
A review of the "Characters" of the previous class.
Chapter 7. Socrates in the Euthyphro: Grappling with Holiness.

(02/12)
Test # 1
Chapter 8. Socrates in the Apology: The Philosopher on Trial.

(02/19)
Chapter 9. Socrates in the Crito: The Philosopher in Prison.
An introduction to Plato. The Allegory of the cave. Ignorance.
Chapter 10. Plato�s Metaphysics: Divine Forms.

(02/26)
Chapter 11. Plato�s Epistemology: Remembering What You Didn�t Know You Knew.
Chapter 12. Plato�s Ethics: The Riddle of the Loved Tyrant and the Hated Philosopher.

(03/05)
A review of Plato leading into the Midterm.
Midterm

(03/12)
Chapter 13. Aristotle�s metaphysics: Divine Forms.

(03/19)
Chapter 14. Aristotle�s Ethics: Discovering Life�s Purpose
A discussion on Ethics and how Aristotle�s Ethics apply today.

(03/26)
Chapter 15. Epicurus: Life�s Purpose is Wise Pleasure.
Chapter 16. Epictetus: Life�s Purpose in Virtuous Indifference.
Following up with Epictetus; Augustine.

(04/02)
Test # 2
Chapter 17. St. Anselm: How to Refute Atheist.
St. Thomas Aquinas: His Contributions to society and His Methods in Critical Thinking/Writing.
Chapter 18. St. Thomas Aquinas: Five Ways to Prove God�s Existence.

(04/09)
Spring Break

(04/16)
Chapter 18. St. Thomas Aquinas: Five Ways to Prove God�s Existence.
Chapter 26. Friedrich Nietzsche: The Prophet of God�s Death.

(04/23)
Chapter 19. Descartes: How to Destroy Skepticism.
Chapter 20. John Locke: Prisoners in the Mind�s Vault.

(04/30)
Chapter 23. David Hume: How to Destroy Certainty about Science, God, and Absolute Moral Values.
Chapter 24. Immanuel Kant: A New Model of the Mind.

(05/07)
Test # 3
Chapter 21. George Berkeley: Inside God�s Mind
Chapter 22. David Hume: How to Destroy Certainty about the World, Self, and Mind

(05/14)
Ethics
Chapter 25. Immanuel Kant Versus John Stuart Mill: How to Make Moral Choices.

(05/21)
Final Exam
Papers Due

Office Hours and Special Situations: I do not have an office on campus. The best time for a student to have a conference with me is before or after class. Or, the student may contact me by E-Mail. Please feel free to contact me concerning special situations that might bring about an absence. I also offer my help to anyone with learning disabilities. Philosophy, a difficult subject in itself, does not have to be made impossible by not asking for guidance or help.

E-Mail Dr. Brady

Please remember to give your registered name and course number when e-mailing!
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